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Written by: Jennifer Stepniowski, Communications Director, Pro QC International
During an annual industry event, a booth was setup where you could take a quick quiz and see which of the "quality gurus" you aligned best with. As many know, there are a handful of these "gurus" within the industry that have laid the foundation of what we know about quality today. Many of the processes and quality tools are still invaluable resources for decision-making and continuous improvement initiatives.
As we celebrate World Quality Month in November, we recognize five of quality's greatest contributors.
Dr. W. Edwards Deming
Deming pointed out that it's management's responsibility to resolve issues, and not the responsibility of the workers alone. He also noted what we continue to see happening, which is that higher quality leads to less rework, fewer mistakes, better use of time and materials and a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Deming contributed both the Fourteen Points that serve as a framework for long-term focus, quality and productivity improvement, and the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act or Shewhart Cycle) approach to continuous improvement.
1) Plan a change or test (P)
2) Do it (D). Carry out the change or test, preferably on a small scale.
3) Check it (C). Observe the effects of the change or test. Study it (S).
4) Act on what was learned (A).
5) Repeat Step 1, with the new knowledge.
6) Repeat Step 2, and onward. Continuously evaluate and improve.
Deming's Seven Deadly Diseases were the cited factors involved in the American quality crisis during the 1950s. It was an innovative approach at the time.
"If you can't describe what you are doing as a process, you don't know what you're doing."
"Quality is everyone's responsibility."
Fourteen Points: https://asq.org/learn-about-quality/total-quality-management/overview/deming-points.html
Seven Deadly Diseases: http://info.ibs-us.com/blog/bid/49709/Quality-101-Deming-s-7-Deadly-Diseases-of-Management
Juran is well known for founding the Center for Quality Improvement and the Juran Institute.
Juran's Quality Trilogy incorporated quality planning, control, and improvement. He is also well known for introducing the concepts of "Big Q," in which all people and departments are responsible for quality and "Little q," in which the quality department maintains these responsibilities.
"Quality is conformance to requirements; non-quality is nonconformance."
"Without a standard, there is no logical basis for making a decision or taking action."
Juran Institute: http://www.juran.com
Quality Trilogy: www.hrasq.org/documents/TheQualityTrilogy.pdf ?
Philip B. Crosby
Crosby is recognized as developing the "Zero Defects" concept. This concept eliminates defects through specific management actions.
Crosby is also well known for his books Quality is Free and Absolutes in Quality Management.
"[...] Zero Defects [is] a management tool aimed at the reduction of defects through prevention. It is directed at motivating people to prevent mistakes by developing a constant, conscious desire to do their job right the first time." - Zero Defects: A New Dimension in Quality Assurance
Crosby's Four Absolutes of Quality include:
1) Quality means conformance to requirements, not goodness.
2) The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal.
3) The performance standard must be zero defects, not "that's close enough."
4) The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance, not indexes.
"Quality is the result of a carefully constructed cultural environment. It has to be the fabric of the organization, not part of the fabric."
"Selecting the right person for the right job is the largest part of coaching."
Four Absolutes of Quality: http://www.iqfindia.org/QualityImprovement.html
Quality is Free: http://www.philipcrosby.com/25years/read.html
Armand V. Feigenbaum
Feigenbaum finished Total Quality Control in 1951. The pivotal book has been referred to as an "effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction."
Feigenbaum was later the founding chairman of the International Academy for Quality and has also served as President of the American Society of Quality.
"Pursuing excellence, deep recognition that what you are doing is right, is the strongest motivation in any organization and is the main driver for true leadership qualities."
International Academy for Quality: http://www.iaqweb.org/
About Feigenbaum: [urlhttp://asq.org/about-asq/who-we-are/bio_feigen.html
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa
Dr. Ishikawa was at one time a student of Deming's in Japan. His book, Guide to Quality Control, was first published in 1982 and is considered an invaluable resource for quality tools and statistics.
Considered the Father of the Quality Circle Movement, Ishikawa is also well known for the Ishikawa Fishbone Diagram that is an effective tool for determining root causes.
Ishikawa also expanded on Deming's Four Points to include:
1) Determine goals and targets.
2) Determine methods of reaching goals.
3) Engage in education and training.
4) Implement work.
5) Check the effects of implementation.
6) Take appropriate action.
"Companies exist in society for the purpose of satisfying people in that society."
"A company is no better or worse than the employees it has."
Fishbone Diagram: http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/fishbone.html[/url\
Quality Circles: http://www.economist.com/node/14301388
About Ishikawa: http://asq.org/about-asq/who-we-are/bio_ishikawa.html
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